China News Weekly, 201 134 cover
9 5 March, one North Experimental Primary School in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, a third grade class going on “how to avoid and correct treatment of sexual abuse” of sexual health education curriculum. Photography/staff reporter Wang Zhen Ge
2009 年 8 月 5, Zhoushan, Zhejiang East tube Temple Community organized a community of more than 60 more than 10 years old boys and girls watch the educational film “adolescent psychological health,” and invited doctors and psychology teacher for young people who set up reproductive health talks. Map/in the new
adolescent sex education based on the importance of the book market in recent years, the emergence of a large number of publications in the field, the major bookstores have opened a counter. Photography/Sun Xiaoxi
What is China’s sex education? It is the “Beijing’s first teaching materials,” “the pace of growth” in the “large scale” of the illustrations; Hangzhou Radio “outrage Eve” Wan Feng of the audience calls the “foul language curse”; is World AIDS Day condom flying high inflatable model; a university classroom with boys and girls with bananas demonstration of condoms; is the boss of private kindergartens in Zhengzhou to demonstrate how the peak genital doll ? ?
sex education in a field from the topics and triggered by the hubbub, people interested in “crowd” that are more daring, more a bit more eye-catching things to watch, but rarely consider the issue of sex education guide. “China has completed sexual revolution” of the situation, the Chinese chose to rush Safety-oriented content as the main physiological model. To this end, it calls to traditional Chinese culture as the foundation of sexual morality, sexual ethics education, sex education in China to lead the more perfect way.
sex education in schools: lost the “pace”
a by the “teaching materials”, “the pace of growth,” the controversy opened a domestic adolescent sexual health education puzzle corner
correspondents/Chen Weiwen/Wang Yifan
“I come from?” This is almost all children will be made to the parents, a difficult answer.
2008 In December, the Ministry of Education to include this issue, “school health education Guidelines.” Outline the primary and secondary second grade should have the basic growth and development and adolescent health, including “life birth, growth of basic knowledge and know ‘I come’.”
August of this year, the media reported as “Beijing’s first teaching materials” and “the pace of growth” (hereinafter referred to as “steps”) is the kind of answer: “Dad scrotum can produce sperm in the testicles They look like little tadpoles, activity is particularly high. … To make naughty sperm find the egg as soon as possible, and my father into the mother’s vagina with the penis, the forced injection of sperm into the mother’s vagina … … “
and “picked up from the garbage heap,” “pop out of rock crevices,” a class of “classic answer,” compared to the straightforward answer was to shock the world. Some parents described as “yellow cartoon”, users have praised the “progress” “open.” For a time, public opinion gradually from the dispute.
Beijing Municipal Education Commission quickly rumor, “pace” is just a primary school in Beijing to participate in “nature of primary and secondary health education programs in Beijing,” the research of the initial results, there is no payment to parents and students, and Beijing City administrative departments at all levels of education are not “sex education materials,” the related project, to prepare the plan.
media center, the main bearer of one of the subject, Capital Normal University Research Center, Professor Zhang Meimei sex silent. Although the “full stomach, then to have told reporters,” but she is still simply “China News Weekly” said, “sex education needs a quiet environment, scientific research, steady progress … … and now less than the time required to grasp rhythm, or just the opposite! “
” There may be more school-based teaching materials, but we do not know it. “
” This book is a textbook can not, strictly speaking, only said Reading. “Professor Zhang Meimei to” China News Weekly, “stressed. It consists of school, Chaoyang District Dingfuzhuang organize the preparation of the second, there is no published ranking without education authorities, school-based curriculum is used for reference books.
so-called school-based curriculum, and the national curriculum and local curriculum corresponds to the compulsory curriculum of the schools discretion. In China, most adolescent sexual health education in primary and secondary school-based curriculum using the time to carry out. Some school-based teaching materials and then write, display characteristics, ease of communication.
“steps” before August 2009 have been Primary Beijing Medical University, published “happy life, healthy growth” in 2005, Chengdu Experimental Primary School of the North “growth the way to go with you,” etc. . They also used the “sperm” “egg”, etc., but not drawn outside attention. “There may be more school-based teaching materials, but we do not know it.” Zhang Meimei said.
in the “footsteps” behind, in fact, is a more than two years has been, Beijing 30 schools participating in the pilot, nearly 500 teachers in the subject line project.
2009 onwards, commissioned by the Beijing Municipal Education Commission, Institute of Education, Capital Normal University and Beijing Research Center of Sex Research will take the issue of sex education “model was first built in Beijing primary and secondary education,” wrote Beijing sex education in primary and secondary schools in the city Outline (draft). In the implementation, the research group designed the 30 sub-topics, respectively, by the six districts of the city and Fangshan, Changping and other suburban counties, 10 primary and 20 secondary schools bear.
“pace”, which is “Dingfuzhuang for two school-based sexual health education materials research,” sub-project initial results. Issue papers also include results, “Beijing Dongzhimen Middle School and high school students of the moral fabric of the questionnaire preparation and results analysis”, “Beijing mentally retarded sexual health status of education research” and so on.
in the Beijing area, the first time to participate in such mentally retarded subjects. Seven or eight years ago, Beijing’s Tongzhou District, Zhao Hongyan teacher found mentally retarded, mentally retarded boys class one, ascribed in the classroom go hand into his pants; the beauty of the girl wearing a miniskirt in the male teacher next to the cruise, but ignorant of the danger of campus. At that time, the attention of mentally retarded children also focused on the knowledge and ability, and in sexual health, especially safe sex, sexual psychology, sexual ethics education is almost a blank.
addition to proceedings, as the group results, there are 97 cases compiled into a classroom set.
“I come from,” this issue, peace in the Dongcheng District of Beijing, a first primary school teacher is described: “The sperm thought to live in his father’s small body, there are over three hundred million brothers live together and small thinking … … a small egg in Europe, a Johnson her home on her baby, especially small and think they want to be friends … but the road they meet both distant and difficult … … “
Then, the teacher role-play arrangements, please do sperm boys, a girl to do egg, lined the barriers began to run. Of course, most boys have been eliminated, “so that students feel the only life to inspire students and lovers of life emotions.”
addition to the physiological part, there are many cases of psychological and sexual concerns ethics. Such as “change seats to bring the thinking”, “receive” love letters “after” “identify risk behavior” and so on.
Zhang Meimei told the media that “the pace” in 80% of the content has been Dingfuzhuang two small lecture in Beijing before, but this school back in 2001, began to explore the sex of the road.
one of the education sector, said to reporters, adolescent sexual health education within the pilot has been active in the education sector, and the “pace” a book of sensation only show, all this is not for the outside world known.
“can not give a fixed standard?”
“pace”, which also stirred controversy in sex education.
child education experts Hu Ping publicly expressed on a blog editor “moral support, views on the differences.” She said the second grade of primary school children to show details of sex pictures and text, do not meet the law of children’s cognitive development, “as we can not give the child’s primary school children to learn advanced mathematics, this is contrary to the child age, cognitive and psychological development of the practice of law. “
in the” growth and “of a book, the author Hu Ping the sperm-egg binding process as” father and mother’s physical contact. ” Interestingly, even if it is so subtle language, published seven years ago when they had been criticized as “the most yellow of the” sex education readers.
“If only that physical contact, the child might think, today, I pull the hand who is not there a baby?” Chengdu University, Sichuan Province, Hu, director of sex education universal base Jane disagreed, “at this stage, the reproductive organs and the fingers, toes, nose is the same, a very simple logic, why not say? child that simple, is complicated adult they want.”
Hu Zhen has been carried out in Chengdu, adolescent sexual health education. From 2007 to the present, she completed Sichuan Education Department project on “the implementation of primary and secondary sexual health education research” subject, after the United States Ford Foundation, the research results into practice, for the 34 primary and secondary teacher training, support commenced.
present, in Sichuan Province, early start in the north of Chengdu Experimental Primary School, six years ago published his sexual health education curricula. Last year, Chengdu University also opened a “minor sex education teacher professional”, becoming the Capital Normal University, the nation’s second set of the professional university.
on the “pace” a book of changes, Hu Zhen’s proposal is, to the second grade of primary school text with phonetic, easy to understand.
sociologist Li Yinhe said in an interview, “is not ahead, this is a quite easy to progress. Before we are too ascetic, now liberated.”
is also prudent supporters. “Beijing Municipal Education Commission of the pilot is basically right, of course, some like ‘injection’ of these words can be refined”, the Chinese Society of adolescent sexual health education director of the committee, said Xu Zhen Lei.
Xu Zhen Lei said, the national adolescent sexual health education of the older areas in Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu, Hangzhou and Shenzhen. Since 2008, four cities in an annual gathering of a discussion, reached a consensus that “low grade of primary school children can tell the facts, but ‘sex’ word is not mentioned as well.”
However, in teaching practice, even if not a “sex” word to explain it is different. It should be said, “genitals” or “vagina”, but “into” or “injection”, although subtle differences, but more than debate.
at a national seminar, a group of experts to listen to a teacher’s on-site classes, “I come from.” Speaking of male sexual organs, “testicles”, the teacher led the children, the word will be the same as the collective back repeatedly read the word several times. Unexpectedly, after the end of the classroom, some experts oppose, some experts even behind, locked in a debate.
Finally, the female teacher grumbled and cried, “even the experts do not know how you did the teacher how do you let us? Our front-line teachers strong execution, can not give a fixed standard ? “view of the dispute, is evident.
“This is actually the difference between two kinds of educational philosophy is based on knowledge of logic to decide about what is taught to groups of logic to decide,” the Hangzhou Bureau of Education UNESCO like Han Ping teacher said.
in Hangzhou, adolescent sexual health education started in the late 1980s. In 2008, Hangzhou, UNESCO prepared a “Manual primary and secondary education in adolescence,” issued to schools. In 2010, UNESCO also launched the “thousands of parents reading a book with” activities, parents with school education. In school, the students through lectures, classes will be receiving mental health classes and other forms of adolescent education.
like Han Ping insisted from the fishes from the upper primary students in adolescent education, because “the cultural values ??can not be changed immediately by tough measures, should take full account of this subtle ethnic Chinese background feelings.” Specific to the sexual organs to explain the depth and content of the term, can not focus only on the complete neglect of social science and humanities.
“said the children how the uterus? Our teachers can say that a mother’s stomach organ is the birth child of the palace, called the uterus. There vagina, you can say it is the life of the channel so that is not beautiful? “Hu Zhen has a different view,” In fact, all the physical sciences, can take from the heart, the respect for the people themselves. ”
However, to achieve this respect, sexual health education teachers is a more urgent than the war of words the reality of obstacles.
sex education is the “three no education”
In China, sex education has not yet entered the academic sequence, no “professional.” In primary and secondary schools, most of the sexual health education teacher mental health teacher, teacher, substitute teacher, part-time officers, and so moral.
teachers overcome the psychological barrier is the first off the podium. Chengdu Longquan seven Chai Xiaolin, director of Jiao Keshi from the late 1980s, has served as the ideological and moral teacher. 4 years ago, he took part in the Hu Zhen and his team of teacher training.
training instructor was very detailed, “can not masturbate, because ‘obscene’ gives a sense of guilt, to say that masturbation; can not say ‘small penis’, say reproductive organs … …”
he thought the training before the summer, a boy asked physiological phenomenon in the classroom: “The teacher, that obscenity Zage do decide?” he darkened, “Other people do not say, only you put this problem, you’re too dirty it! “echoed the other students:” It Well, your thoughts have a problem! “
Chai Xiaolin reflect on their own,” Actually I do not have that courage to control this problem, so escape. “
After the training, repeat sexual health education classes, he was afraid to ask questions of students, but is no longer worried about courage, but the ability. Whenever a student asked an unexpected question, he can only tell the truth: “Sorry, I can not answer, I have to find information and answers after class, and then you explore.”
“sexual health education teacher not only have a physiology, psychology, sociology, legal and ethical knowledge, but also the accumulation of literature, presentation skills, organization, I think more difficult than other teachers. “Hu said Jane.
Most halfway decent sexual health education teacher will experience, “imitation, reflection, the original” teaching stage. If it is not really interested in, some teachers may be a long stay in the first stage. Some teachers, because the school had to specify the training, but in the end whispered curse “shameless.” Some teachers, once the job changes, it is no longer actively teaching. Sexual health education, dubbed the “no teachers, no class, no textbook,” the “three no education.”
“discipline penetration” method they were vigorously. In addition to a special class, the language, mathematics, biology, sports and other subjects can be permeable health education.
example, language classes in terms of “seed” comes to life is not easy; math class to learn the golden section, the teacher can remind the girls themselves, and have a decent sense of beauty; gym class , the teacher should also be in motion before, timely information to protect vulnerable parts of the body … …
in knowledge, in addition to biology, sexual safety, have a clear answer, sexual psychology, sexual ethics, sexual ethics, standards In fact vary. The values ??of education themselves and thus become more important.
a teacher told the “China News Weekly,” “Some older teachers can be on the podium stated rightly propaganda ‘must not premarital sex’, but I will not, because I is 80, had their own, such a request is unspeakable. ”
“contemporary China, the phenomenon is diverse and confusing, and sexual values, too,” the teacher said. Despite this complex situation in primary and secondary sexual health education is not clear, but different teachers, which directly determine “to what extent the words”, and thus subtle impact on students.
“Who is to judge me? Only my own”
on the “pace” of the debate is not over, and sex education began to attract the news people’s attention. Zhengzhou, in Henan, one called the “cradle” of the private kindergartens the children considerably scale sex education. Classroom, the teacher was showing an adult female doll, tell the child the name of a different sexual organs. Explaining the “pubic hair”, the teacher also invited a boy came up, hand touch.
the face of external challenge, Zhengzhou, China Education Group cradle cradle kindergarten where the peak of the “China News Weekly,” told reporters that this is a “based on physiology, psychology, sociology integrated out completely scientific safe mode of education. ”
He Fengxuan said that he bear the three major topics, sources from the United Nations Children’s Fund to develop China as early education demonstration bases have sex. He does not want to do kindergarten, is “dedicated parents forced to do” “I these theories are hard to find in the international arena, such as I implement prenatal care, is positioned to teach parents how the baby’s personality, your character to Han children, I’ll give you create; locate the baby’s future career, you are in the Han professional, father and mother that are given … … “
these seemingly counterintuitive statement, He Feng said his study of 18 years, and sexual health education in kindergarten has been three years.
“of this nature present a comprehensive education and practice in the country, I can say there is no second person, who is to judge me? Only my own judge.” He Feng of the “China News Weekly “said.
“sexual health education is difficult to assess the actual effect, this is a very pertinent questions,” Xu Zhen Lei admitted to reporters. Various non-controversial, partly because that comes from this.
Finally, to rely on recipients of their right to exercise the judge. This just started in the country, regional differences in the huge Chinese sexual health education, need more time and space.
8 end of another experimental teaching materials for primary school sex education, “boys and girls” in Shanghai quietly OTC. This year, the group led by Zhang Meimei, will put in Beijing’s expanded to 45 pilot schools. Hu Zhen future research directions will be as “gender stereotypes reflection and revision” … … ★
(intern Xueyu Meng also contributed to this article)
Sex You Silu
old sexual morality has collapsed, and the new, but has not yet been established. In this context, China’s value-oriented education is still very vague, had been hastily “hurry.” Safety, physical education, places most of the “simplified” approach, popular
“Mom, the teacher said, shaking hands, hugging and kissing will get AIDS, which is true? “the Central Party School professor Jinwei Qing Chu remember, about three years ago, was still in high school so the daughter asked her.
“educational resources in the most developed country called Beijing’s Zhongguancun area, actually there is no secondary school sex education, AIDS prevention and even the basic knowledge taught was wrong, while the other hand, China’s AIDS prevention publicity, not to start from this point of sex education, but long-term stay in the level of condom promotion. “Jin Wei since 2001 in the Central Party School to a national level cadres to do AIDS prevention training, when she was invited into his daughter’s AIDS prevention education in secondary schools, sex education in China began to issue a new observation.
recently, the Chinese People’s Institute of Sociology, University of Pan Sui-ming in the investigation concluded in 2001 and 2010, China has completed the “sexual revolution.” Jin Wei said, “However, China’s sex education is still at a standstill.”
shy of the official context
“through sex between men and women, sperm and egg meet in the female fallopian tube fertilization and combined into a fertilized egg. “This is published in Beijing in 1996,” Adolescent Health Education “(trial version) of the word, the book is the only part of the contents of sexual reproduction. Just for the expression of this sentence, Yu Cheng was carefully worded to seek for a long time.
as secondary school doctor was eleventh in Beijing, Yu Cheng seek is that the compilers of this material. In 1982, the Beijing Education Bureau and Beijing Disease Control and Prevention co-pilot to carry out puberty education students, eleven were selected as pilot schools.
After the founding of new China, Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai and other Party and state leaders have been concerned about sex education issues. Zhou Enlai at Nankai University read earlier, he had heard an American professor of education lecture, he touched by this, been thinking about the issue of sex education. Before his death, he specifically asked Zhou Enlai, the medical team leader Jieping, engage in sex education in China must take up.
as the impact of the Cultural Revolution, Zhou Enlai’s exhortations have a response until the 1980s, China’s contemporary sex education, but also that staggered start times. In 1982, Jieping compiled “sexual medicine” published in the ice-breaking for a sexuality. In the same year, Beijing XI secondary school in first grade addition of “adolescence education” classes, Yu Cheng is seeking one of two classroom teachers.
“junior middle school students just entering adolescence, education is the best time,” explained Yu Cheng seek. However, what about school? Yu Cheng did not seek any reference materials, can only provide an outline of the EDB, combined with physical health-related knowledge to write your own notes.
in the pilot process, mainly by the Yu Cheng seek written the 70 thick booklet is to get a lot of school trial – the trial, on the “try” to 1996, Beijing Municipal Education Commission decided to Yu Cheng, who seek handouts, based on written materials adolescent students.
early as 1963 during the national conference of Medical Sciences, Zhou Enlai proposed: “Prior to menstruation in girls, boys first wet dream occurred before the sexual health knowledge of science to tell them.”
1988, the then State Education Commission, Ministry of Health and Family Planning Commission jointly issued a circular calling for education in secondary schools to adolescence.
official attitudes on sex education has always been shy. “At that time also not directly mentioned sex education, adolescence education has become synonymous with sex education.” Secretary-General of Chinese Society, youth education director of the committee, said Xu Zhen Lei, until now, although the community has begun to directly call sex education, but in all the official documents of the Ministry of Education, also still did not “sex education” is the word, but only “adolescence education.”
Ministry of Education, the latest requirements on sex education, the 2008 “Guidelines of primary and secondary health education.” Can be seen from the file name, sex education is being included in health education.
Xu Zhen Lei explained that the foreign education to be more diversified and, if human rights-based sex education, there is gender awareness-based sex education, but so far, China’s sex education, are is health-oriented. This is a major feature of Chinese education.
AIDS prevention, sex education promoter
from the 1990s, the content of sex education began to change: With the rapid spread of AIDS in the world and into China, the AIDS prevention education has become increasingly important goal. AIDS prevention, sex education is the goal, but also the education of the promoter.
1990 enacted in August the “People’s Republic of AIDS prevention and control of medium-term planning” (1990 ~ 1992) pointed out that young people are active in the neutral population groups, the need for special education.
This is the first time the AIDS prevention education for young people to make regulations. Since then, the Ministry of Education and Family Planning Commission issued several various documents required for AIDS prevention education for young people.
seven years ago, a Tsinghua University, Beijing refused to disclose the distribution of condoms has occupied the Beijing News reported major pages of the newspapers. At that time, some people questioned the promotion of condoms is tantamount to anti-aids do?
this, Jin Wei is simply summed up as follows: China’s AIDS prevention education now, in fact, condom education. AIDS prevention around the well-known missionary situation, she said, sex workers and gay people, the local CDC (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention) have a “senior cadres of the team”, or “high-risk behavior (or people) intervention team” to be responsible for anti- Ai publicity. Their job is to run training courses, posters, stickers, brochures hair, put condoms and engage in a quiz, etc., these are around the promotion of condoms.
As for college students, young AIDS interventions, is still the routine. Jin Wei explained that, compared with the former, AIDS prevention education for young people is quite lacking, mainly relying on various projects. Usually in the Global Fund, the Ford Foundation, the Gates Foundation under the auspices of the foreign NGO, the Youth League and schools, students, or gay organizations.
“this situation for many reasons, such as related to the professionalism and dedication is not enough, work simplification, and some organizations even take the condom distribution as an assessment of the indicators.” China Centre for Disease Control and Prevention of STD and AIDS prevention and control center director Wang Ruotao Ethics Committee of the “China News Weekly” said, “condom education should be targeted to the treatment of different groups. School education and the education of other groups in society should obviously not the same, such as for junior high school students about how to use condoms, I do not think necessary, while sex workers, the need for the floating population in this area of ??education. ”
Yunnan CDC Jarman, director of Red Arrow said, AIDS prevention education, school funding is relatively small, more often, but also the school would be willing to cooperate, or there is no project support.
AIDS prevention work in Yunnan, a long-term retirement officials said, the promotion of condoms as AIDS prevention education in the mainstream, is a realistic option. “Promotion of condoms, good statistics, good monitoring, easy to operate, is low-input high-yield; and sex education, invisible, it is also more difficult to do, is a high input and low income.”
another On the one hand, some experts believe that condoms “safe” role has been exaggerated suspicion. Former vice chairman of the Chinese Society of Zhu Qi said that in the 1990s, Family Planning Commission held a special meeting of experts, decided to publicize AIDS prevention, the condom into the condom so that it easier to understand and accept. But in fact this is a misunderstanding. He pointed out that condoms for AIDS prevention success rate is not 100%, so the “condom” is called would create “a false sense of security.” Oriented to the use of condoms for AIDS prevention campaigns, even they may promote their sexual bud. Zhu Qi that is only for young people to “chastity view” based moral education, AIDS prevention is fundamental.
Although controversial, a growing number of Chinese university campuses have accepted condom vending machines, and in the classroom teaching students who use condoms, is common. But the question one after another, condom or not to enter high school education?
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