the small river catchment area has 107 debris flow ditches only 17.1% of the Jinsha River Valley, but its sediment load accounting for 68.5% of the sediment load of the Jinsha River Basin. Zhang Wenling photo
another year of drought coming, to make DONGCHUAN forestry once again facing a severe test.
March 14, 2009, the China Youth Daily reporter standing on a the Dongchuan huge mudslides on the riverbed, dry hot valley wind coerced gray sand blowing, makes untenable also wide open opening the eyes. Riverbed on both sides of the mountains, most of them are brown land, to see less than a spring green. Dongchuan District Forestry Bureau to reporters a set of data, as of now, 38.6 million mu of 3 years of afforestation in Dongchuan District, the affected area of ??33.26 mu, which has been inundated by 22.47 million mu, a loss of 10.79 million mu, accounting for the total afforestation 27.95% of the area.
for three consecutive years of drought, the Dongchuan forestry suffered heavy losses, this is an extremely fragile ecological areas, no doubt in the beating.
than 10 years, the governance of small river is to defend the Yangtze River “as the Oath of Dongchuan, a tight budget, struggling to bear the heavy ecological restoration and construction of the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, but the mid-hard to plant trees, forest cover rate of only 20.8%, lowest in Yunnan, an ecologically fragile areas of forestry why so embarrassing?
forestry and water conservancy facilities is seriously supporting
wear Dongchuan, but after the small river, a tributary of the Jinsha River, but now the small river has no Wumeng majestic walk the mud pills, water of Jinsha Warm the steep cliffs of the momentum, large amounts of sediment gravel occupy the riverbed, narrow river like a ditch. Local villagers told reporters that the small Hot Dry Valley area, the annual rainfall is only 700 to 800 mm, but evaporation is six times the rainfall up to 30 times, some special regional evaporation. Altitude of 1600 meters below the mountain road along the eye can see the microscopic green.
of Dongchuan the plight of its territory rich copper reserves.
Dongchuan copper mining history of 2,000 years, the annual output of blister copper in the Qing Emperor Qianlong, Xianfeng years up to 8125 tons, more than 10 million miners. According to historical records, the Qing Dynasty coins 70% Dongchuan Copper, Dongchuan copper has a special status in our system of currency, as well as manufacturing. After the founding of new China, the State Dongchuan copper mine as a “fifteen” during one of the 156 national key construction projects. Dongchuan made an indelible contribution to national construction.
many years with charcoal smelting copper ingots and coin money, resulting in East Chuan Senlin no longer exists, the ecological environment has been seriously damaged, “horse riding exposed copper,” The end result is to make the Dongchuan have the most brutal the natural landscape: the world’s largest debris flow Museum of Natural History. Each year dozens of irresistible force of the debris flow, Dongchuan “broken”: the area of ??soil erosion in the region up to 1309 square kilometers, accounting for 70% of the total land area, 33 percent higher than the national average. To 2011, Dongchuan point 401 geological disasters, of which 249 landslides, mudslides 113 geological disasters points are distributed in eight townships in the region, threatening 32,018 people, the potential economic losses amounting to 1.93592 billion yuan. The world’s largest debris flow impact fan – “Jiangjia Ravine” an annual average of 15 field landslides, the largest up to 28 games a year. According to statistics, since 2000, Dongchuan debris flow and landslide disasters have caused more than 200 deaths.
ecosystem restoration to become the the Dongchuan most realistic demand and the most fundamental foundation for the development, but in Dongchuan, afforestation has hit the most inappropriate afforestation conditions: soil barren, bare gravel, most of the land suitable for afforestation, desertification, desertification, landslides and landslide area, not only evaporation and successive years of drought and water shortage.
Oolong town horse chomchon villagers China Youth Daily reporter saw 53-year-old Zhang phase is two kilometers away from the mountains back to back a large plastic bucket of water over 120 trees of walnut trees, watering the home, while a bucket of water poured only a couple of trees, if 10 times a day back and forth, and also four days before pouring all saplings. Even so, there is no guarantee that all the seedlings into all survived.
this year, the slopes of the three towns of the neighborhood offices of the Dongchuan A Wangzhen, oolong town and copper 10.5 million mu of walnut. As the drought worsens, Dongchuan District launched a drought contingency plan to ensure that drinking water through water to the car as far as possible to ensure that agricultural and forestry production, and can not be taken into account in the mountains to rely on the villagers to carry water the seedling, with a few vials and thin film water.
compared to the infrastructure for agricultural production, forestry production and the necessary infrastructure construction is serious is not complete, and almost no ability to respond to natural disasters, afforestation effectiveness is not high. “Dongchuan District Forestry Deputy The Secretary said Xu Changfeng, natural forest protection project implemented in 1999, although the requirements of engineering and biological measures taken in the control methods, the combination of biological measures to govern, but the reality of afforestation design often focus only on biological measures , but no supporting hydraulic engineering measures for the forestry, water only forest. ”
mountains unmanned operation, it was Hill business
Jia Qing village in the valley 2500 meters above sea level, is a place that will give visitors a “stunning”.
this ancient villages are far wall stone tile, stone, “a the quartzite room patchwork distribution on the hillside. However, the eyes of the tourist village of great aesthetic value, but it is a per capita annual income of less than 1000 yuan poor in Alpine Village.
past, Jia Qing of the soil erosion threat to the foot of the village, Jia Qing to become a key governance areas, copper subdistrict offices Qingkou Village Grain 600 acres of land, Jia Qing There are 300 acres. Now, more than 400 people of the village 129 only a mountain of 30 acres, more than two minutes per person. Fewer people and more to make the village more than 300 strong labor had to work outside the home. The elderly, women and children stay at home in live frugally, relying on 30 acres of land in the potato, sweet potato, radish, living a secluded life. Red cloth wrapped horn, loudly stood pop music mini mobile van, occasionally stumble up the hill to delivery to the village, the villagers of the stone house credit shopping, working men returned the money and checkout.in 1999
, Jia Qing of returning farmland to forests has made great achievements, looks lush trees in the village on the hillside behind. In accordance with the provisions of the survival of returning farmland to forest trees per acre per year to give subsidy of 260 yuan for eight years. But after eight years per acre annual subsidy reduced by half, or 130 yuan, which makes the villagers deeply disturbed. “A young man can go out to work, come back after the old how to do?”
forestry and agriculture, animal husbandry this is closely related, but for the restoration of the ecological, forestry and agriculture, animal husbandry has become mutual constraints.the Dongxing Bo
50-year-old the the Dongchuan board Hepo planting trees, forest 20 years, the board Hepo species of the dead, dead species, afforestation four times to save his 1,000 acres of woodland. The Dongxing Bo live a self-built concrete house in opposite plates River slope, and every day he should use binoculars to observe the slope whether the cattle and sheep to eat the seedlings of the new species. “Forestry is the third of seven in charge.” Dongxing Bo said.
, but farmers are worried that these “tubes”.the
Qingkou Village, a village cadres, said most of the mountain village they were included in the Natural Forest Protection Area (natural forest protected areas), farmers’ cattle and sheep grazing can not be captive up, due to limited arable land, crop less straw, making silage rarely atrophy livestock, farmers lost an important source of income.
Xu Changfeng not without worries that the implementation of the program of the Natural Forest Protection Project focus on structural reform of the forestry enterprises, the public welfare to create a natural forest of the ban on logging and protecting forests, but timber stop cutting production, how to develop new alternative industry to get rid of the difficulties brought by the logging ban and cut, but not the appropriate planning and policy support for the survival of the farmers are becoming prominent.
“Dongchuan 80 percent of forest land have been designated for the public welfare, but the woodland there is no land as ‘land its main’, resulting in ‘the mountains no one business, it was Hill business’ phenomenon . Xuchang Feng said.
such as the division of the forest and commercial forest, a village, the farmers are to even ground, but as long as the program for the public welfare, family farmers on the management and protection, while classified as commercial forest. that farmers can be freely traded; ecological functions played by public welfare than the commercial forest, but in accordance with state regulations, designated as public welfare forest compensation income, par-door between the farmers and farmers enjoy policy was not the same.
zoned Public Welfare allowed to private logging and trading, in fact, have personal belongings as public goods. Farmers’ private goods into public goods, the Government should make it reasonable compensation for the economic, ecological forest construction evaluation, to develop a reasonable buy-back price, or cost savings to improve the ecological environment of the amount and the trees of economic value as the basis for financial compensation for afforestation by their economic interests be protected, “said Xu Changfeng.
afforestation subsidy standards for more than ten years
A Wangzhen On Lok Tsuen, 46-year-old Liu Shun position since the 2008 rain rush-planting seedlings, you have a strange disease, and every July will suffer from a bad cold.
Liu Shun position in the center of life is to plant trees. 12 years, he traveled to over 90% of the mountain in Dongchuan, contracting nearly 16 million mu of afforestation and management engineering, more than 500 million trees planted seedlings, forest twenty thousand acres. In June last year, Liu Shun positions in the toad mountain planted 5,000 acres of eucalyptus, acacia and black gold tree more than 10 kinds of trees, but the newly emerged seedlings because of drought by locusts gnawing dead 2/3 is the third time, and now replant the
in Dongchuan, trying to species living too hard! “Said Liu Shun positions.
which almost is the feeling of of Dongchuan all the people who planted this difficult drought, high mountains and steep.
Dongchuan located in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in northern domestic high mountains and deep valleys, the terrain is steep, with a maximum elevation of 4344.1 meters, a minimum altitude of 695 meters. Each year during the rainy season comes, when the seedlings are plant crops. Farmers to go out at 6:30 in the morning, came to the foot of a hillside near 90 degrees, look up at the will dizziness, farmers take up the hoe and two or three seedlings, heavy rain to climb this mountain and basically had no The road in some places is only wide feet, their shoes will soon live in the mud paste. Climb up the mountainside of the pre-dug pits, planting a number of, and then return to the foot of the mountain, back a basket of seedlings up to a day trip forty-five. Noon, to find shelter from the rain, eat the left-to bring their own.
“Dongchuan the mountain was steep, are not naked even a clutch of local mountains acceptance seedlings are grabbed the hands and feet of grass can be pulled when not climb dare to look down. “Forestry Bureau staff know the pain of planting trees.
now, so bitter and dangerous living very few farmers are willing to dry.
Natural Forest Protection Project 1999 implementation of the afforestation subsidy of 200 yuan per mu (the state invested 160 yuan/mu, the local matching 40 yuan/mu) per acre to 300 yuan, and later, but based on 1997 the subsidy standard for the determination of the annual wage base has been useless to change. In recent years, nursery stock prices rose sharply, a large labor force work outside the home, more and more difficult to find people planting trees, even if found, but also calculated a labor charge of 50 yuan a day, 300 yuan for afforestation investment criteria is far from being able to meet the reforestation requirements. This year Dongchuan species and 1 mu meet Huan tree, spend 1000 yuan per mu, the local finance to invest 10 million yuan this end, this is a great burden of a national poverty-stricken counties.
In addition, Dongchuan is a natural disaster-prone long-term drought-affected areas, and each year new afforestation have varying degrees of damage, the forest after a disaster, the state failed to give appropriate relief funds, local Government can not afford to put in a lot of replanting to fill construction works funds, greatly influence the effectiveness of the implementation of the Natural Forest Protection Project, is also severely restricted the ecologically fragile areas of ecological restoration and reconstruction work.
afforestation pay attention to local conditions, but the investment and the effectiveness of checks do not pay attention to local conditions. Afforestation conditions are good and bad, compensation is the same standard. “Xu Changfeng said:” The investment criteria of 10 years ago, unchanged for a long time, resulting in serious lag in the scientific development of forestry, the Protection Project in the past 10 years only to the increase in the number of a lower level of the ecological construction and protection goals, the distance of the country’s ecological building needs differ greatly from the Government is not satisfied, dissatisfied with society.
Yunnan CPPCC members suggested that the state should be founded “Ecological Zone”
in Dongchuan, the “broken pieces” is a painful experience, so many the Dongchuan people have strong plant trees Complex.
known as “the man” Lee to the, was the deputy head of the Dongchuan District. In 2003, when the 48-year-old Lee back to the short break and contract to Social Wo Muk Shue Long Village 600 acres of wasteland barren hills, determined here for the Dongchuan per person to plant a tree, Dongchuan 30 people, I planted 30 million trees, not put the flood greening up it. ” People say he was “stupid”, he simply put their own piece of land called “stupid Han farm, and the arrival of the day in the wasteland of debris flow impact on the species under the banyan tree.
March 13, 2009, the China Youth Daily reporter standing on Lee to the three under the banyan tree, see each of them banyan unique among forest canopy cover, like a sweltering sun.
9 years, Lee to have the “10 trees live a” faith, led more than 10 workers on the 600 acres of mountain land planted dozens of trees, although because of drought each year the survival rate of only 30%, but he did not give up, “they must attack” to “one tree a year to add 10 leaves no white dry”.
9 years after, Lee to where the Dongchuan to create a miracle, 600 acres of woodland, lush, Governance Reform after the valley of wasteland into fertile farmland, the stupid Chinese Farm “was renamed” Mike Zhuang, known far and wide.
but Li said, “of Dongchuan ecological event of default, planting trees is difficult, difficult development, ecological restoration is not easy, not a person or several people the power to change, need the attention of the community and participation. “
Yunnan CPPCC members, group vice president of Yunnan University of Life Sciences, Duan Chang said,” For a long time, is located in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, Pearl River, Yunnan spare no effort to environmental protection and ecological construction, the downstream areas with important ecological products. the lower reaches of rivers and even the whole society is right and proper to enjoy the ecosystem services, the use of this ecological value, but the upper reaches of the crowd did not get the proper value of identity and watershed care. “the input of the Natural Forest Protection Project investment in ecological construction in Yunnan Province, only a small part of most of the investment needs of Yunnan where to put labor into self-financing. These inputs as the public welfare, very few direct economic benefits, promote local economic construction, improve poor outlook on the role of often negligible.
a forestry department official said the western poor and ecologically fragile areas in the exchanges with developed areas there are many inequalities, the state poverty-stricken areas, there are many economic event of default.
information, with 107 debris flow ditch the small river catchment area of ??only 17.1% of the Jinsha River Valley, but its sediment load accounted for 68.5% of the sediment load of the Jinsha River Valley, a small river basin each year mud into the Jinsha River Sada more than 1000 tons, a significant threat to the ecological safety of the Yangtze River basin and large reservoirs in and realistic damage. To do this, Dongchuan will improve the ecological environment as the region’s most important task and most of the people’s livelihood.
“ecological production is also a kind of economic production. Downstream areas of economic production and environmental production of the upstream region, between them, have a high comparative efficiency, are no substitute for.” Duan CQ “income compensation” is the international practice, the middle and lower reaches of regional environmental benefits, should provide financial compensation to the upper reaches of biological resources in protected areas, the cause of ecological protection should be built on true market mechanism, reduce the national burden.Duan CQ
, Leimao Sheng, Cheng Da, more than the Yunnan Provincial CPPCC members that the State should change the development of ideas, the founder of the Ecological Zone. Ecological Zone, the assessment of cadres to the implementation of “GDP immunity” to protect the ecological functions of the ground is the performance. Countries to full assessment of the ecological value of the assets in Yunnan as well as the country’s ecological contribution, given in full the ecological compensation, not only solved the problem of existence of the upstream region of farmers and allows farmers to become industrial workers, they provide more ecological products. the compensation received by the more and more wage growth.
commitment to ecological protection of the farmers to abandon the conventional mode of production, beneficiaries from the ecological return, this is not helping the poor support, to nurture a new type of public good ecological construction force for the country. “Duan CQ said.
newspaper Kunming, March 18
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