the once fertile black soil, but now it is facing crises.
Uncle the Longjiang is farmland edge work.
the Longjiang County cornfield.
stand . Nenjiang County Plaza on the tractor.
fertilizer excessive use of high-yield crops and wind erosion threat to the North Warehouse/Chart reporter Zhang Dan
soon as tractors roar, breaking the Heilongjiang Nenjiang County The morning calm in the seed market, the young people rushed to the other side of the slopes, cultivation of the vast expanse of the soybean.
Heilongjiang, fields still green, less a fraction of the central region of flowers, a little more leisurely “late”.
last year, grain production in Heilongjiang Province, won the eighth consecutive year harvest, the grain output for the first time more than 10 consecutive years, ranking first in Henan Province, the provinces (cities, districts), became the first in the country grain producing provinces.
Heilongjiang, the former “Northern Wilderness” in the achievements of the brilliant “Northern Granary”, get it unprecedented glory.However,
dazzling glory “behind”, and perhaps very few people can see it’s “real”. Successive years of increased fertilizer use, “high yield” crop structure adjustment, the threat of wind erosion, Heilongjiang proud of “black earth”, as the time, silently, slowly slip through our fingers.
black soil organic matter content of up to 70% reduction in the black soil layer thickness decreased by nearly half, experts pointed out that these figures makes clear, if we do not realize the seriousness of black soil loss in the near future, perhaps will lose this “beautiful black”.
half of the
food production depend on fertilizer
without fertilizer, land maximum cut of 60%
early morning of June 14, Longjiang black Gangxiang Black Village 72-year-old Yu Dianfu came to work children in the home corn. Yu Dianfu of a lifetime with the black land “cooperation”, today’s “high yield” time is best achieved on the highest point in history. He said that the ground facilities are manure, ash-made, is now virtually no man-made a. “Fertilizer, fertilizers, power does not arrive ah.” Therefore, use of chemical fertilizers, use at least two or three crop fertilizer. Base fertilizer and top dressing on the urea, which can make high yield. “
” We are now half of the food production is to rely on chemical fertilizers to support. “Heilongjiang soil and fertilizer management station owners Hu Ruixuan In an interview with reporter said.
as Soil and Fertilizer Association in Heilongjiang Province, Heilongjiang Province Soil Science Society of vice chairman, director of the Chinese Society of Soil Science, Hurui Xuan told reporters, Heilongjiang fertilizer use increased nearly tenfold from the 1970s to the present, . More than an acre of corn in the past also 2000 trees, and now mundane 3500, more than four-five thousand. “Crop protection, pest and disease reduction, high density and other factors,” help “food yielding.
has been committed to maintaining the quality of black soil in the Hu Ruixuan once did an experiment, specifically a few pieces of children to chemical fertilizers. A result, the year the average grain yield of the few pieces of children to cut about 40 percent, the highest cut of 60%. Chemical fertilizers immediately cut, indicating the decline in the ability of the land itself for nutrition, to rely on foreign nutrient supply.
Their conclusion is that if the factors of seeds, fertilizers, high density and other variables are excluded, the natural production of the black land, there is no past on the 1960s and 1970s.
soybean township “has become the hometown of” popcorn “
In recent years, although the Nenjiang be referred to as” the hometown of soybeans, but the real farmers willing to grow soybeans, can be said that less soybean production is low, “” the price is not high compared to the high-yielding corn, the farmer’s annual income of up to more than double the difference.
soybeans will soil the nitrogen has a certain supplement, but the high-yield crops such as corn, wheat will not. “Heilongjiang Province Soil and Water Conservation Research Institute, chief of Hsu J K. told reporters that the previous rotation basically three years, soybeans, planted two years or one year of corn, but now because of the high-yield corn, high prices, many times three or four years are not rotation time.the
this case, the objective so that the black soil nutrient loss intensified, making the black land more “weak”. Heilongjiang is also facing an “embarrassing”, if the rotation of soybeans, it will mean “cut” If you have been corn, will be faced with fertilizer dependency syndrome “high risk.
Heilongjiang soybean area left more than 3000 mu
the Hu Ruixuan said, Heilongjiang estate crops, the soybean area, the maximum time accounted for 6000 million mu, the per acre production is also about 400 pounds, but now corn more than 6000 mu, the mundane will be able to reach more than 1000 pounds per acre. Rice more than 5300 mu, and corn yield similar. Soybeans now more than 3000 mu. “
The county’s food
How to increase Nenjiang County Deputy Secretary of Agriculture Litie Hui said that in recent years, the county increased planting of corn, wheat, compressed soybean planting. Corn or 40 million mu of last year, this year increased to over 80 million mu, Nen River County has 650 million mu of farmland, the goal is 200 mu.
three reasons caused by the “Black Soil degradation”
a predatory business lead to accumulation of soil consumption is greater than
Chinese Academy of Northeast Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Institute of Agriculture Technology Center Research Director, tillage Association executive director ZHANG Xing-yi said so many years, the black must have changed. the so-called “black soil degradation.”
He said that the whole black land reclamation, 100 the coming year, and cultivated field most of the grass lawn of Heilongjiang Province, for example, organic matter content of about 8% to 10%, up to now only The remaining 3% or so. The main reason is reclaimed farmland, predatory, with raising the imbalance. For example, he said, an artificial cultivation is necessary to flip the soil, accelerating the decomposition of soil mineralization, coupled with the lessons of crops, and this has led to the consumption of soil is greater than the accumulation is used to raise disorders.
its problems is that the black soil generated more difficult, more difficult the formation of the formation of about one centimeter may have to one or two hundred years. “Heilongjiang Province Soil and Water Conservation Research Institute of Science and Technology Section, Hsu J K. , according to the survey, many places do black soil profile, the time of the early black soil can be achieved as 50 cm to 1 m deep, is still relatively common, but now the main farming areas of black soil also about 30 cm.
, desertification wind erosion of a direct threat to the “granary”
Heilongjiang west wind erosion of serious year, “desertification of the land” can reach up to about 100 square kilometers. Hsu J K. interview with this reporter, said that despite the Songnen Plain is not particularly typical of the black soil region, Nenjiang sand year after year to the eastward shift will be the black soil region of Heilongjiang great threat.
the same time, the desertification of western Heilongjiang, wind erosion trend in strengthening, expansion to the east of, and gradually a threat to the “breadbasket” of the Songnen Plain. He said that the main grain-producing area of ??the black area on the plains, has been a lot of people think that black production area of ??the northeast, the terrain is flat, fertile soil, so this piece of Water and Soil Erosion in attention or not enough. In fact, large-scale reclamation, slopes, woodlands, wetlands, grasslands area in the past, are reclaimed to become arable land, soil erosion has become a very serious thing.
1990s, these areas grass cover rate even 8% of reach, in some places only about 5%, and their own ability to withstand disasters is very weak.
three midwifery “fertilizer” is a land of “chronic killer”
Hurui Xuan said, on the 1960s and 1970s, Heilongjiang basically Shi point of nitrogen, phosphate, potash, no facilities; the 1980s and 1990s, began to P fertilizer, and potassium in the soil enough. To the present, is the NPK all facilities. Heilongjiang simply do not have facilities micronutrient fertilizer, trace element fertilizers are applied. Therefore, these show the deficit of the soil, lack of serious imbalance.
Nenjiang County Deputy Secretary of Agriculture Litie Hui said, now measured phosphorus content in the soil enough. He told reporters that all these years, straw less, manure applied rarely, now the soil of organic acids would lead to less than normal, resulting in the release of phosphorus is relatively small, and ultimately had to chemical fertilizers.the
this case due to the effective utilization of chemical fertilizer reduces the effective utilization of it in about 30%, has been able to reach 40% ~ 50%. Effective utilization rate of decline in fertilization costs, you have to fertilization, in order to meet the needs of the crops. “prescription FOR
: the protection of arable land than high-yield
Heilongjiang soil and fertilizer management station owners Hurui Xuan, Heilongjiang has 250 134 mu of arable land, food production more than 11 billion kilograms, is now the first in the country. The proportion of Heilongjiang commodity grain, accounting for about 70 percent of food production in Heilongjiang, we can say is the country’s food base, so the state should focus on support of Heilongjiang.
the same time, he believes, although now the agricultural inputs, rarely, but for improving the quality of arable land. “This is a terrible thing,” he told reporters, “crisis” now is the leadership, decision-makers aware of the problem.
retreat “farming”, “Mu” improve the ecological
Heilongjiang Province Soil and Water Conservation Research Institute of Science and Technology Section, Hsu J K. said, Nenjiang sandy formation, mainly natural causes. Soils Nenjiang sandy area is sandy soil, climate, where the climate is more arid, rainfall is relatively less than normal in most regions of Heilongjiang annual rainfall of 550 mm to 650 mm, Nenjiang Sandy this part of the region, annual rainfall of about 400 mm. Especially in spring and autumn winds, coupled with its sandy soil, which the two sides along the Nen River, due to the effect of the wind, the surface of the sand blowing up there, the formation of sand dunes.
He believes that the Longjiang and western Heilongjiang region, from the 1990s, a large area to carry out farming. But in fact, these areas of the western part of Heilongjiang, is not well suited to carry out farming, livestock-based, sandy soil, once destroyed, it is difficult to restore.
Nenjiang sand in this region to govern is a long process of gradual recovery of the vegetation, and some small shrubs, tree or grass, than to plant crops is much better. “
protect the quality of arable land “responsibility”
“when these fertilizers, how to do in the future?” Heilongjiang black soil fertilizer dependency syndrome “, the Hu Ruixuan expressed their own concerns, just light rely on chemical fertilizers, the country’s food security would be no guarantee. Food prices to catch up with the price of gold, to the last who could afford to eat?
He believes that the national level should be legislation to require the “responsibility” to maintain soil quality. First of all, is the main administrative officials “accountability”. In addition, it should be clear arable land users’ rights and obligations. Arable land users not only the right to use arable land, the obligation to protect the quality of arable land is much greater. At the same time, the establishment of the compensation system of the quality of arable land.
According to the Soil Association’s official website, Hu Ruixuan developed a “arable land in Heilongjiang Province Maintenance Ordinance in Heilongjiang Province, through legislation, to fill the blank of China’s cultivated land and maintenance of special legislation.
He told reporters that black land is still a “fertility”, the core of the solution is to ensure that soil organic matter accumulation and rebound. He suggested that the focus on supporting organic fertilizer and subsidies to farmers, by industry sector and technology sector supervision.
black soil organic matter to improve the Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Agricultural Technology Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences Research Office, the China Association of tillage executive director ZHANG Xing-yi believes that the various measures after three decades of practice have been with the results of the field of organic fertilizer, organic manure, straw.at the same time, he said, to maintain current productivity must rely on chemical fertilizers is a little adverse impact, but the human had to the application, food production had to use.
Black land soil change course
1.1950, black area of ??soil erosion in 24292.4km2, erosion area 18457.3km2, wind erosion area for 5835.14km2 . Soil erosion area accounted for 20.5 percent of the land area of ??Tibet.
2 to 1980, black agricultural areas of natural secondary forest has disappeared, and the forest areas the forest edge strides back. The black soil layer thickness was significantly thinner and thick, black soil land by the early liberation 50cm ~ 60cm down to about 25cm ~ 30cm, thin black soil plots decreased from 25cm to 30cm to 15cm ~ 20cm.
3 to 2000, the black soil layer thickness further thinning of the thick black soil land has 50cm ~ 60cm down to 20cm to 25cm or so, the thin black soil plots 25cm ~ 30cm decreased to 10cm ~ 15cm. Erosion gully continues to increase and development.
from 2000 to the present, the control area of ??the nearly 1600Km2. Beginning in 2003, the black soil in Northeast District pilot project governance to complete the small watershed, soil and water conservation eco-efficiency was significantly reduced by an average sediment loss of 68%, ability to withstand floods generally strengthened.welcome to comment on the comment I want to share: Recommend | microblogging microblogging hot today (edit: SN010)